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Human body cannot produce omega-3 fatty acids and must obtain it from diet. There are three types of omega-3 fatty acids that are needed by the human body, namely α-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Although studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids cannot prevent or treat diabetes or heart diseases, it did improve the condition of insulin resistance and the level of triglycerides in the body. It is well known that overweight leads to insulin resistance, which in turn leads to metabolic syndrome. Many animal experiments have already confirmed that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are beneficial in promoting insulin sensitivity. It inhibits nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NFκB), which is a key transcription factor for gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. On the other hand, studies have also pointed out that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids do not improve the function of kidney’s endothelial cells and high blood pressure in patients of type 2 diabetes.
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